Consider the example of a specific factorial experiment in organizational psychology. Apparently, one of the most serious problems of organizational psychology is the development of effective programs to improve work motivation of employees. In developing such programs , psychologists rely on numerous motivational theories and concepts . For example, according to the two-factor theory of motivation F. Herzberg , motivation of employees is determined by the extent to which they are satisfied with their work . However , as has been proved an American psychologist , satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work due to various factors ( in detail this theory will be discussed in the chapter "Motivation" ) .
Job satisfaction affect the so-called motivators (achievement and recognition of success , interest in the work , responsibility, promotion , etc. , ie, factors related to personal development ) . Dissatisfaction with work is determined by quite different , " hygiene " factors ( working conditions, interpersonal relations in the workplace, earnings, uncertainty about the stability of work , etc.) .
According to Herzberg , the factors causing satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposite in the same dimension. Job satisfaction and high motivation motivational factors cause only . Hygiene factors , even in the most favorable cases do not lead to greater job satisfaction , and can provide a neutral attitude to perform a task.
On what factors to focus in the development of a new incentive program work ? Do all employees motivation largely depends on this motivation , not the hygiene factors ? In any organization, people work with different levels of family income , and these differences are sometimes very serious. For example, in childless families, where both members of the family financial situation is usually much better than in large families with one earner . In this context, the researcher may be the assumption that the theory does not account for Hertzberg variable " level of family income ," and motivational factors , such as peer recognition or interest in the work are the main stimulants work only for wealthy workers. At the same time , the main source of motivation for workers from low-income families will be exactly the hygiene factors (eg , higher earnings ) . In order to create an incentive program of work was justified, and the researcher needs to check to what extent the theory of Herzberg is suitable for a particular organization ( the validity of the theory ) , and to what extent